Encyclopedia of Vampire Mythology

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This species of vampire was first mentioned inthe Mesopotamian epic, Gilgamesh. The utukku was created when a person died before he could fulfill an obligation, causing his soul to become bound to his corpse, creating a REVENANT. Usu-ally found in deserted places in the desert and mountains and along the ocean's shore, it kills by making direct eye contact with a person, absorbing his life-energy (see ENERGY VAMPIRE). As time passed, this ancient species of vampire became thought of more as a demon.
Source: Rogers, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, 1 47­48; Sayce, Religions of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia, 283­87; Thompson, Semitic Magic, 39­40; Wiggermann, Mesopotamian Protective Spirits, 113­14

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